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It’s straightforward to take books and different printed materials without any consideration. Nevertheless, earlier than the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg within the mid-15th century, books have been written by hand. They have been typically reserved for the elite, although rising literacy among the many center class elevated their demand.
Typeface historical past has largely been influenced by the supply of know-how all through the centuries, beginning with Gutenberg’s press and persevering with by way of digital typography developments by designers within the 20th and 21st centuries.
Books for the plenty
Gutenberg acknowledged that having the ability to mass-produce books rapidly and cheaply was a profitable prospect. He drew on the movable sort utilized in East Asia and screw-type presses being utilized by farmers in Europe to plot the concept for the primary printing press.
As a result of Gutenberg was a goldsmith, he was capable of create sturdy letter blocks that could possibly be used time and again. Whereas arranging the letters for every web page may take a whole day, the web page may then be printed as many occasions as crucial from that single day’s work.
Learn: [Why designers should stop obsessing over trends and aim for ‘timeless design’]
Gutenberg’s letterforms have been primarily based on the Blackletter calligraphy that was used to put in writing manuscripts. The draw back was that it restricted the quantity of textual content that might match on a single web page, creating longer books that required extra time to arrange.
Blackletter typefaces have been the unique commonplace for printing, primarily as a result of they mimicked the handwriting model of the time. However as talked about above, the draw back was that they took up appreciable area on the web page.
In 1470, Nicolas Jenson acknowledged that easier letterforms would end in having the ability to match extra textual content on a single web page, leading to shorter books with sooner setup occasions. He created the primary Roman typeface, primarily based on Blackletter and Italian Humanist lettering.
Jenson’s typeface was the primary to be created primarily based on typographic rules fairly than manuscript fashions. His Roman sort is the premise for a number of trendy fonts, together with Centaur, created by Bruce Rogers in 1914, and Adobe Jenson, created by Robert Slimbach in 1996.
Whereas Jenson’s Roman sort saved area on the printed web page, others have been making an attempt to save lots of much more area to enhance the effectivity of e book printing. In 1501, Aldus Manutius and Francesco Griffo created the primary italic typeface, which allowed much more textual content to suit onto the web page. Whereas initially invented as a space-saving measure, italics are nonetheless used to emphasise textual content.
Effectivity was not the one typographic problem tackled by the primary sort of designers. Readability of early typefaces wasn’t ideally suited, particularly the italic typefaces favored for saving area.
In 1734, William Caslon created a brand new typeface model that included extra distinction between strokes in every letterform. Now known as “Outdated Type” sort, these typefaces made letterforms extra distinguishable from each other at a look, enhancing readability.
John Baskerville took this a step additional in 1757, creating Transitional typefaces with extra distinct letterforms. Whereas he made enhancements to sort, ink, and printing presses, his typeface was blacker than that of his contemporaries. Baskerville’s design was criticized as a result of thickness of the strokes. One in every of his critics even went as far as to say that his typeface could be “chargeable for blinding the nation.” His typeface was a industrial failure however was revived within the 20th century, and he has since been hailed as “the greatest printer England ever produced.”
The looks of contemporary serifs
Within the 1780s, two sort designers—Firmin Didot in France and Giambattista Bodoni in Italy—created trendy serifs with excessive distinction between strokes. At first look, the typefaces are very comparable in look and showcased the standard of the metal-casting work completed by the respective corporations, as thinner strokes required a lot better craftsmanship.
There are some distinct variations between the 2 fonts, principally within the look and placement of explicit letterforms. For instance, the uppercase J in Bodoni extends under the baseline, whereas in Didot it sits on the baseline. The strokes on the “3” in Bodoni are each terminated with balls, whereas solely the higher stroke is terminated with a ball in Didot.
Due to the extent of distinction between skinny and thick strokes in trendy serifs like Didot and Bodoni, they’re not essentially the most readable typefaces at smaller sizes. They’re finest fitted to headlines and show makes use of, although at excessive resolutions, they are often appropriate for physique copy.
The primary slab serif typeface
The primary commercially out there slab serif, or Egyptian, typeface—referred to as “Vintage”—appeared in 1815 and was designed by Vincent Figgins. They have been extra attention-grabbing than extra conventional serifs. The first attribute of slab serif fonts is the dearth of curvature on the serifs.
After the primary slab serif typeface was launched, they rapidly grew in reputation early within the 19th century, alongside the rise in printed promoting. Some slab serifs have been developed particularly for use at bigger sizes for printed matter like posters. This was a departure from earlier large-scale sort designs, which tailored current types of e book sort.
Giant-scale promoting design additionally introduced concerning the first sans serif typeface.
Sans serif sort makes its first look
Across the identical time as the primary slab serif typeface turned out there, the primary sans serif sort turned commercially out there. William Caslon IV developed “Two Strains English Egyptian”—also called “Caslon Egyptian”—in 1816. It caught on rapidly, and commercials and different printed materials from the early 19th century stood out due to its use.
Sans serif sort was influenced by block lettering that was generally utilized in classical antiquity, through which serifs have been minimal or lacking completely. Throughout the early 1800s, Egyptomania took a lot of the Western world by storm, and each typography and design took cues from Historical Egyptian artwork and its blocky lettering model.
The subsequent vital growth in sans serif sort got here 100 years later when Edward Johnston designed the enduring typeface for the London Underground—nonetheless in use at present.
20th-century typeface historical past
The 20th century introduced nonetheless extra essential developments in typeface historical past. The primary full-time sort designer was Frederic Goudy, who acquired his begin within the 1920s. He created iconic fonts which are nonetheless in use, together with Copperplate Gothic and Goudy Outdated Type (primarily based on Jenson’s Outdated Type typefaces).
In 1957, Max Miedinger designed Helvetica, arguably essentially the most iconic typeface of the 20th century. Different minimalist typefaces have been developed within the 20th century, together with Futura (developed by Paul Renner) and Optima (developed by Hermann Zapf).
The primary digital typeface—Digi Grotesk—was designed by Rudolf Hell in 1968. Early digital fonts have been bitmaps, which resulted in less-than-ideal readability at small sizes. In 1974, the primary define (vector) fonts have been developed, which resulted in higher readability concurrently lowering file sizes.
By the late 1980s, TrueType fonts have been created, which allowed for each laptop shows and output gadgets like printers to make use of a single file. In 1997, OpenType fonts have been invented, which allowed each Mac and PC platforms to make use of a single font file.
In the identical 12 months, CSS integrated the first-ever font styling guidelines, and the next 12 months, the primary assist for internet fonts was added to Web Explorer 4 (although they weren’t extensively adopted at the moment).
Typeface evolution on the net
The 21st century introduced appreciable advances in web fonts. In 2009, the Net Open Font Format (WOFF) was developed and added to the W3C open internet commonplace. This growth paved the best way for widespread adoption of internet fonts in 2011 when all main browsers lastly adopted assist for WOFF.
Widespread assist for internet fonts revolutionized digital design, permitting designers virtually limitless choices in internet typography and ushering in traits, together with huge typography and using define fonts.
The introduction of variable fonts inside the OpenType commonplace in 2016 strengthened the online typography revolution. Variable fonts can change measurement and weight primarily based on the place they’re utilized in a design, inside a single font file. This flexibility means utilizing fewer font recordsdata, leading to sooner web page load occasions.
What the longer term holds for typography
Variable fonts have had a big influence on digital type design, however there’s nonetheless room for brand new traits and applied sciences to emerge sooner or later. One space the place many typefaces are nonetheless missing is world language protection. Whereas many typefaces deal with Latin character units, there are different Western languages (resembling Greek and Cyrillic) that needs to be extra extensively included as commonplace in font recordsdata.
Some areas of design change and evolve rapidly, however typography has been slower to evolve over the centuries. One rising know-how to look at is the event of colour fonts, inside the OpenType-SVG format. These fonts enable designers to make use of a number of colours inside a single glyph. Whereas the know-how to do that has been round for a couple of years, it hasn’t been extensively adopted—but. Then once more, internet fonts have been technically attainable for greater than a decade earlier than they have been extensively adopted.
If typeface historical past has demonstrated something, it’s that typography will proceed to evolve to fulfill the wants of designers, new codecs, and readers.
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